GRAPHIC IMAGES: Shark attacks seal, turns water red

Rare video footage captures the moment when a shark attacks a seal off Cape Cod, turning the water red.

The video, which was posted to YouTube by the Atlantic White Shark Conservancy, shows a research vessel approaching the shark. When researchers reach the predator, it launches its bloody attack on the seal.

“The research team recorded this close up footage of a seal predation in clear water about 100 yards from the beach off Wellfleet, MA,” explained the Atlantic White Shark Conservancy, in a post accompanying the YouTube video.


The video provides a “rarely seen window into the world of the Atlantic white shark in Cape Cod water,” it said.

Sharks are in the spotlight at the moment. Last week a shark bit a Texas man, who was rushed to hospital. Last month two children were bitten by sharks off Atlantique Beach and Sailors Haven in Long Island.

Terrifying images recently showed a great white shark swimming just feet away from a paddle boarder off a Cape Cod beach.


Earlier this month a Massachusetts man recorded stunning video of a shark leaping out of the water with its jaws wide open.

Texas man reels in 12-foot tiger shark after ‘intense fight’

A Texas man made the catch of a lifetime Saturday after reeling in a 12-foot tiger shark near South Padre Island.

Matthew Zuniga, of Harlingen, caught the shark after 1 a.m. on Saturday, roughly two hours after hooking the sea creature.


The 31-year-old told Fox News on Tuesday he had a line out for roughly 12 hours before the shark hooked the bait during high tide late that evening.


The shark was 12-feet long. (Matthew Zuniga)

“It walked us down the beach for about a mile from where we first started out,” he described, adding that his 15-year-old nephew helped him reel in the shark. “It was an intense fight.”

The South Texas man said the catch marked his first tiger shark, though he’s been fishing for more than 20 years in the South Padre area and has reeled in hammerhead and bull sharks in the past.

Zuniga said reeling in the tiger shark was “beyond what [he] ever thought it would be.”


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Zuniga said this was his first time catching a tiger shark. (Matthew Zuniga)

“I’ve caught really nice sharks in the past, but I can’t compare the fight [to the tiger shark]," he added.

Zuniga measured and took pictures with the shark before tagging and releasing it back into the ocean.

Waves of garbage crash ashore in stunning footage

Massive waves of swirling, disgusting garbage were captured on video by a college student in Manila Bay.

Piles of trash, plastic bottles and other unidentifiable refuse can be seen rippling and crashing ashore in video and images posted on social media.

Matthew Doming, a student affiliated with the Bedan Environmental Philosophers Organization, which was leading an effort to clean up the Philippines capital waterfront, recorded video of the trash-filled waves.


Doming told Storyful it was the group’s first time witnessing the extent of garbage pollution in the area.

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Waves of garbage are seen in the Philippines’ Manila Bay. (Matt Doming/Facebook )

“It was such a horrible scene but instead of being dismayed, they were motivated to serve in line with the mission of our club, despite the discomfort,” he said.

Piles of garbage and all kinds of plastic debris have washed up on roads and side streets in Manila following a deluge of rain over the weekend.

According to a report from Ocean Conservancy, five Asian countries—China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam—are dumping more plastic into the oceans than the rest of the world combined.

Residents in some areas have reportedly been pitching in to recover lost valuables and useful material from the debris piles.

Red tide crisis: The science behind the toxic algae bloom on Florida’s Gulf Coast

Florida’s red tide, which was declared an emergency by Gov. Rick Scott on Monday, has been devastating marine life on Florida’s Gulf Coast this summer. Beaches have been littered with dead sea life as a result of the naturally occurring toxic algae.

“A red tide, or harmful algal bloom, is a higher-than-normal concentration of a microscopic alga (plantlike organism),” explains the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, in a statement. “In Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, the species that causes most red tides is Karenia brevis, often abbreviated as K. brevis. To distinguish K. brevis blooms from red tides caused by other species of algae, researchers in Florida call the former the ‘Florida red tide’.”

The area is no stranger to red tide events. “Red tides were documented in the southern Gulf of Mexico as far back as the 1700s and along Florida’s Gulf coast in the 1840s,” explains the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. “Fish kills near Tampa Bay were even mentioned in the records of Spanish explorers.”


This summer’s red tide has already caused the deaths of hundreds of sea turtles, as well as large fish like goliath grouper and even manatees. In places like Longboat Key, more than 5 tons of dead fish have been removed from beaches.

This week, nine dead dolphins were found in Sarasota County. Marine biologists are investigating whether the deaths are related to red tide.

Red tides can also cause respiratory irritation for humans. “For people with severe or chronic respiratory conditions, such as emphysema or asthma, red tide can cause serious illness,” officials explain.


The toxic algae bloom can last as little as a few weeks or longer than a year, according to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, which notes that red tides can even subside and then reoccur. “The duration of a bloom in nearshore Florida waters depends on physical and biological conditions that influence its growth and persistence, including sunlight, nutrients and salinity, as well as the speed and direction of wind and water currents,” it says.

The latest red tide has spread throughout the Gulf of Mexico, drifting in the water since it began in October. Stretching about 150 miles, it’s affecting communities from Naples in the south to Anna Maria Island in the north; the latest bloom appears to be moving northward.

On Monday, Florida Gov. Scott declared a state of emergency due to impacts of red tide in Collier, Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota, Manatee, Hillsborough and Pinellas counties.“As Southwest Florida and the Tampa Bay area continues to feel the devastating impacts of red tide, we will continue taking an aggressive approach by using all available resources to help our local communities,” he said, in a statement.

The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission explains that the red tide can be found in bays and estuaries but not in freshwater systems such as lakes and rivers. “Because K. brevis cannot tolerate low-salinity waters for very long, blooms usually remain in salty coastal waters and do not penetrate upper reaches of estuaries,” it says. “However, other harmful algae, including cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), typically bloom in freshwater lakes and rivers.”

Last month, Gov. Scott declared a separate emergency to combat algal blooms caused by Lake Okeechobee water discharges from the Army Corps of Engineers. The discharges were an attempt to manage high water levels following the state’s wettest May on record.

Rare clubhook squid spotted in Oregon for second time in 2 weeks

A robust clubhook squid washed up on an Oregon beach last week for the second time within the span of two weeks, giving researchers another rare opportunity to study the mysterious deep sea creature.

The 8-legged squid, which measured 9 feet long with 5-foot-long tentacles, had been dead a few days when beachgoersDebi Tribe and daughter Cami discovered it on a beach in Neskowin. The first clubhook squid was found about 70 miles away in Cannon Beach on July 27.

"When they saw the article in the Oregonian about the squid in Cannon Beach they called us to see if we would be interested in examining this one. We were!"Seaside Aquarium announced in an Aug. 9 Facebook post, sharing several photos of the stunning discovery.


Like the first squid, researchers will also dissect this sea creature in hopes of learning more about its habits.

"The beak was already gone but we took a few tissue samples which will be sent to Alaska where they will be used to further study the diet of sperm whales," the aquarium said.

Fortunately, the squid’s body was mostly intact, allowing researchers to measure the animal and determine whether it was male or female.

"Since little is known about these large squids each one we get to examine is a unique opportunity to learn just a little more," the aquarium added.


Therobust clubhook squid can grow up to 12 feet long, making it the third largest squid species in existence.

"M. robusta is distinguished from other squid of the North Pacific by presence of 2 rows of sharp hooks on the tentacle clubs, by the length of its fins, the fleshy longitudinal ridges on its body, and its large size," the Seattle Aquarium explained in a blog post, citing research fromF.G. Hochberg, an expert oncephalopods.

This particular type of squid is typically found inwarmer areas of the Pacific Ocean, anywhere from California to Japan, theOregon Coast Beach Connection reports.

The ocean’s ‘Twilight Zone’ is affecting Earth’s climate

It may not be a dimension as vast as space nor as timeless as infinity, but the ocean’s "twilight zone" is affecting Earth’s climate, due to the heavy presence of phytoplankton in the region.

NASA scientists are venturing into the ocean’s "twilight zone" to explore how phytoplankton are affecting Earth’s climate. Phytoplankton, which have been described by NASA as "nature’s watercolors," remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere via photosynthesis. Although scientists understand how the carbon is captured, they do not yet understand where it eventually goes, nor how long it stays there, especially when the phytoplankton die or become food for other creatures.

A team of over 100 scientists is working to understand where the carbon goes, in a project known as Export Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS). The scientists will use underwater robots, satellite imagery and two research vessels, as they set sail on a month-long journey 200 miles west from Seattle into the northeastern Pacific Ocean.


"The continued exploration of the ocean, its ecosystems and their controls on the carbon cycle as observed with advanced technologies by EXPORTS will provide unprecedented views of Earth’s unseen world,” said Paula Bontempi, EXPORTS program scientist in a statement.

Bontempi continued: “The science questions the team is tackling really push the frontier of what NASA can do in both remote and in situ optical ocean research. NASA’s goal is to link the biological and biogeochemical ocean processes to information from planned ocean-observing satellite missions, thus extrapolating the results from this mission to global scales.”

The EXPORTS project, which is being funded by NASA and the National Science Foundation, will take the researchers into the far depths of the oceans, the aforementioned "twilight zone," an area 650 to 3,300 feet below the ocean’s surface. Here, there is little to no light and the plethora of life in this region that rely on phytoplankton as a source of food is abundant.

Zooplankton is one such species. Scientists are trying to understand how this species, which moves to the surface and then back down to the twilight zone at sunset, affect the release, if at all, of carbon into the atmosphere, once they consume the phytoplankton; as well as how it affects carbon levels once the zooplankton themselves are eaten.


It’s understood that a portion of the carbon re-enters the atmosphere as zooplankton breathe it out and when they die and decompose, but some of it also sinks into the twilight zone, which is baffling scientists.

"It’s a tiny fraction, a fraction of a percent of biomass that makes it deeper down in the ocean where the water stays away from the atmosphere for a long time, from decades to thousands of years," Heidi Sosik, a member of the EXPORTS team, said in the statement. "We have pretty good information that tells us these processes are happening, but we have much less information to help us to quantitatively assess their impact on things like carbon cycling and, ultimately, Earth’s climate."

Archaeologists fear biblical artifacts, monuments won’t survive Yemen war

MARIB, Yemen – After years of internal conflict and ISIS insurgency across Iraq and Syria destroyed much of what was left of the Middle East’s pre-Islamic history, experts now fear the protracted civil war in neighboring Yemen will quietly erase its own rich biblical roots.

“The historical sites are of great importance to Yemen and are part of Yemeni history and identity,” Iris Gerlach, Head of the Sana’a Branch at the German Archaeological Institute Orient Department, told Fox News. “Ultimately, this would be comparable to the destruction of the White House or the Statue of Liberty for Americans. The intentional destruction as well as war-related collateral damage is a crime on the world cultural heritage. As long as the war is going on, more monuments will be destroyed.”


The ancient temple believed to have once housed the Queen of Sheba.(Fox News/Hollie McKay)

As a crib to some of the world’s oldest civilizations, Yemen played an imperative role in the accession of empires and economies, beginning around 1000 BC. Yet the assault on its antiquity in recent times has been fierce.


And the threat of even more damage to the country’s trove of treasures looms large – perhaps most poignantly in the site considered to have once housed the mysterious and powerful Queen of Sheba (Bilquis in Arabic), located just 30 miles east of the small Yemen city of Marib.


Remnants of the Sheba dynasty in Yemen.(Fox News/Hollie McKay)

There is a sense violence could ignite at any moment.

“The Queen of Sheba is known from the Old Testament – I Kings 10 and 2 Chronicles 9. According to these accounts, she decided to visit King Solomon after hearing his wisdom. She tested him with hard questions and brought him gifts of spices, gold and precious stones loaded on camels,” explained John Wineland, professor of history and archaeology at Southeastern University. “These gifts reflect the main source of wealth for Sheba, also known as Saba, which was an overland caravan trade connecting India, Arabia and East Africa.”


(Fox News/Hollie McKay)

Later, tales of the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon were further elaborated in Jewish, Christian and Islamic texts– including the Koran – and their legacy cemented in all the Abrahamic faiths and sculptures of Sheba adorn great Gothic cathedrals across the world.

While there is some discrepancy over the precise origin of the enigmatic royal, with some experts suggesting she may have been Egyptian or Ethiopian, the vast majority of scholars conclude she birthed from what is now modern-day Yemen. Her dynasty controlled the export of the ever-valuable and cherished frankincense, which grew exclusively along the nation’s southern coast, and ruled the region from around 1000 BC to AD 290.

Crucial to Sheba’s reign was said to to be the Kingdom’s Temple, documented to have once been her throne, internationally lauded for its majestic entrance, magnificent pillars and great annexes.

Today, children play in these prized yet imperiled ruins. But just a day before a Fox News visit to the area, a tribal land dispute reportedly left one local dead on the road leading to the site. That night, Houthi missiles launched nearby rattled the fragile structures. The overwhelming feeling of war-torn uncertainty remains palpable.


Location of the Great Marib Dam, considered to be one of the world’s greatest engineering marvels.(Fox News/Hollie McKay)


In a desperate bid to salvage what remains, last year UNESCO issued coordinates of at least 50 prominent historical and holy locations in Yemen to the various militaries involved in the battle. Nonetheless, the file of decimated or marred artifacts and sites remains thick.

Soldiers standing guard near the Marib dam. The northern province, rich in oil, is largely under control of government forces and defended by their main military backers, a Saudi Arabia-led coalition that has several bases here. (Photo by Kareem Fahim/The Washington Post via Getty Images)

Soldiers surround Marib’s Great Dam.(2018 The Washington Post)

The regional museum of Dhamar, in Yemen’s southwest, which was stuffed with thousands of irreplaceable relics from the Himyarite Kingdom – the powerful tribe from the south conquered Sheba/Saba after 290 AD and went on to develop trade relations with the Roman Empire – has been rubbled. More than 60 other vital ancient locations have also been entirely destroyed or severely damaged, including medieval castles like the Sira Fortress in Aden, and the venerable Qassimi neighborhood in the capital of Sana’a.

Then there is one of the grandest draws of Queen Sheba’s city – the Great Marib Dam – which was also partially crippled in a 2015 airstrike.

Some Yemenis conjecture that the almost 3,000-year-old dam, deemed by many experts to be the world’s oldest and one the country’s most heralded attractions, was consciously targeted by the Saudi Arabia-led coalition. The unpopulated area was pounded several times in 2015, lacerating the northern sluice gate.

YEMEN - APRIL 08: Ruins of the city of Baraqish, 6th century BC, Al Jawf governorate, Yemen. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

The UN has deplored the recent destruction to the ancient, pre-Islamic walled city of Baraqish in Yemen.(Getty)

“The Great Dam of Marib is probably the most important ancient water management building in the world. The outlet structure is part of an irrigation system that allowed Sabians to practice sustainable agriculture in the arid zone for more than 2,000 years,” Gerlach observed.

Marib Dam, built in the 8th century BC in a quest to bolster agriculture in the otherwise desert terrain, is still considered an engineering marvel. It was breached and rebuilt numerous times over its millennium of sustaining life in the region, with one inscription indicating that one rehabilitation effort required some 20,000 men and 14,000 camels.

One major blowout in the 6th century AD is believed to have caused the city of Sheba to drown beyond recovery, its population migrating out into Syria and Iraq, then known as Mesopotamia.

“There are more archaeological sites in Yemen than anywhere else on the Arabian Peninsula,” stressed Daniel Varisco, Senior Postdoctoral Scholar for the Institute for Social Anthropology at the Austrian Academy of Sciences. “Especially important are the thousands of inscriptions in ancient South Arabic languages and dialects. These give details on the rulers, battles, religious rituals, economy and private letters.”


YEMEN - MARCH 23: The city of Ta'izz view from the Qal'at al-Qahira citadel, Yemen. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

The 12th-century al-Qahira citadel in Taiz, Yemen, has been maimed in the ongoing war.(Getty)

While both sides are blamed for igniting and continuing the devastating civil war, experts have largely pointed to the Saudi coalition as bearing responsibility for the majority of archeological destruction – either accidentally or deliberately as a means to strike the Houthi enemies or to dispirit local supporters of the rebels.

"If the targeting of heritage sits of archaeological significance continues to be falsely denied with no proper investigations or repercussions or when hit they are deemed to be collateral damage, impunity will reign," charged Mohammad Alwazir, director of legal affairs for the Arabian Rights Watch Association. "And there will be nothing left effectively standing in the way of such actions that violate the people’s cultural rights."

Armed Yemeni tribesmen from the Popular Resistance Committees, supporting forces loyal to Yemen's Saudi-backed fugitive President Abedrabbo Mansour Hadi, launch rockets as they continue to battle Shiite Huthi rebels in the area of Sirwah, in the west of Marib province, east of the capital, Sanaa, on May 21, 2015. A United Nations conference to relaunch political talks on Yemen will open in Geneva next week, a UN spokesman said on May 20, despite uncertainty over who will attend.   AFP PHOTO / STR        (Photo credit should read -/AFP/Getty Images)

Fighting in the monument-filled Sirwah-area has left many Yemeni’s on edge.(Getty)

But the coalition has persistently denied targeting historical sites, while representatives for the opposing Houthi group have dismissed coalition claims they use such key locations to store weapons or as bases. They insist their presence in or around such sites is purely to protect them.

But in addition to physical damage to Yemen’s vital yet delicate classical structures, which have also been inflicted by shockwaves from even distant explosions, foreign excavators and historians too have been forced to flee the country amid the fighting – thus stopping important work in illuminating Yemen’s long and winding yesteryear.

“The conflict in Yemen not only prevents scholars from researching and recording the important history of the region, it causes the destruction of the sites and artifacts. These are not only damaged by direct shelling but also the vibrations of nearby conflict,” Wineland lamented. “And the neglect of sites too leads to vandalism and looting.”

The Yemen war, which sparked in March, 2015 after a Saudi-led coalition began an intense aerial campaign to dislodge the Iran-aligned Houthi rebels from large swaths of the country, has yet to produce a victory for either side. More than 10,000 are estimated to have been killed in the fighting, which has spiraled into what the UN has termed the worst humanitarian disaster in the world.

“First and foremost, it is the humanitarian crisis in Yemen that needs to be resolved by an immediate end to the war,” added Varisco. “Yet it is also important that the rich and unique cultural heritage of Yemen not be destroyed.”

Frozen woolly mammoth found in Siberia could be new species, researchers say

Fossils found in Siberia of a tiny woolly mammoth could be an entirely new species, researchers say, with some dubbing it a "Golden mammoth."

The woolly mammoth is tiny and has been described as a "pygmy," at just seven-feet tall. Woolly mammoths averaged between 9 and 11 feet tall, with some approaching 15 feet in height, according to TED.

This mammoth was found in Siberia on Kotelny island and could be 50,000 years old, according to experts. Like rings in a tree, scientists are able to discern a mammoth’s age by looking at the rings of its tusks, going so far to tell when what season the animal died. Darker rings indicate the creature died during warmer months.


According to the Daily Mail, the recently discovered mammoth has been given the nickname of a "golden mammoth," due to the color of its fur.

It is now embedded in undersea permafrost and is only visible during low tide on the island, located between the Laptev and East Siberian seas.

According to Dr. Albert Protopopov, who is the Chief of the Mammoth Fauna Research Department at Yakutian Academy of Sciences, said that it’s still a question of whether this mammoth was an anomaly or not, but coming across its carcass will allow them to answer questions.

"We are yet to discover whether this is an anomaly, or something quite typical for this area – when a grown up mammoth looks like a pygmy," he told the Siberian Times. "We have had reports about small mammoths found in that particular area, both grown ups and babies. But we had never come across a carcass. This is our first chance to study it."

Discoveries of smaller or pygmy mammoth remains are not uncommon. Remains have been found off the coast of California and in the Arctic, but Dr. Protopopov believes the new findings are a new species, unrelated to the so-called island effect, which has been bandied about by researchers as causing a decline in the population of mammoths, which eventually died out about 4,000 years ago.


"It is a different thing," Dr. Protopopov said, when asked about whether the new find was related to the mammoth remains found on Wrangel Island. "I think that our new mammoth is not related to the Wrangel mammoth population. This was a different era and different case."

While it’s not yet known what researchers will learn from the aforementioned woolly mammoth, some scientists have pondered that reintroducing some of the mammoth’s permafrost-preserved DNA could help with climate change.

Speaking with Live Science in May, George Church, a Harvard and MIT geneticist who is the co-founder of gene-editing tool CRISPR and is heading up the Harvard Woolly Mammoth Revival team, said it may not be desirable to bring back the creature in its entirety. However, introducing a few of its genes to Asian elephants could help increase their tolerance to the cold.

"The elephants that lived in the past — and elephants possibly in the future — knocked down trees and allowed the cold air to hit the ground and keep the cold in the winter, and they helped the grass grow and reflect the sunlight in the summer," Church told Live Science. "Those two [factors] combined could result in a huge cooling of the soil and a rich ecosystem."

The Siberian mammoth remains are set to be excavated from their grave next summer.

Stunning sphinx discovery: Workers make incredible find while fixing road

A mysterious sphinx has been discovered during roadwork in the Egyptian city of Luxor.

Mohamed Abdel Aziz, director general of Luxor Antiquities, announced the find Sunday, according to Egypt Today. The sphinx was found at the site of a road connecting Luxor Temple and the Temple of Karnak, two vast ancient temple complexes on the east side of the Nile.

Archaeologists are now working to carefully lift the mysterious statue, Egypt Today reports. Officials say that, because of its location, the statue cannot be directly extracted from the ground.


While the famous Great Sphinx of Giza on the outskirts of Cairo is the best known, there are a number of smaller sphinx statues in Luxor.

Ancient Egypt continues to reveal its secrets. Archaeologists recently opened a ‘cursed’ ancient black granite sarcophagus. In a separate project, experts also unearthed a 2,200-year-old gold coin depicting the ancient King Ptolemy III, an ancestor of the famed Cleopatra.

Experts in Southern Egypt recently discovered an extremely rare marble head depicting the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.


Additionally, experts in Australiafound the tattered remainsof an ancient priestess in a 2,500-year-old Egyptian coffin that was long thought to be empty.

On the other side of the world, a rare ancient artifact depicting the famous female pharaoh Hatshepsut surfaced in the U.K. Stunning new research also claims that King Tutankhamun may have been a boy soldier, challenging the theory he was aweak and sickly youthbefore his mysterious death at around 18 years of age.

Experts in the U.K. alsofoundthe world’s oldest figurative tattoos on two ancient Egyptian mummies recently, one of which is the oldest tattooed female ever discovered.


Other recent finds include anancient cemeteryin Egypt with more than 40 mummies and a necklace containing a “message from the afterlife.” An ancient statue of a Nubian king with an inscription written in Egyptian hieroglyphics was also found at a Nile River temple in Sudan.

Scientists also believe that they may have found thesecretof the Great Pyramid’s near-perfect alignment. Experts are also confident that they have solved the long-standing mystery of the “screaming mummy.”

In February, archaeologistsannouncedthe discovery of a 4,400-year-old tomb near the pyramids. Late last year, archaeologists also revealed that they haduncoveredthe graves of four children at an ancient site in Egypt.

$5 million for a nickel? Extremely rare Liberty Head nickel set for auction

An extremely rare 1913 Liberty Head nickel is expected to fetch between $3 million and $5 million when it is auctioned on Wednesday.

The Liberty Head nickel is one of only five in existence, Vicken Yegparian, vice president of Numismatics at auction house Stack’s Bowers Galleries, told Fox News.

“No-one really knows the circumstances of their production,” he said. “This is the best of the five, it’s known as the Eliasberg specimen.”


Named for Louis E. Eliasberg Sr., the banker and famed coin collector who bought it in 1948, the nickel will be auctioned at the American Numismatic Association’s World’s Fair of Money at Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania Convention Center on Aug. 15 at 6 p.m. EDT.

Yegparian told Fox News that the five Liberty Head nickels were produced just before the U.S. Mint began producing nickels with a Buffalo Head design.

“Of the remaining four, two are off the market – one was donated to the Smithsonian in the seventies, and one was donated to the American Numismatic Association in the 1980s,” he said. “There remain two other ones in private hands.”


The nickel comes from the family of Dr. William Morton-Smith, who Stack’s Bowers describes as an “old-time collector” of coins.

Rare coins are big business. Earlier this year, a small $5 gold coin produced by the San Francisco Mint during the height of the California Gold Rush was estimated to be worth “millions of dollars.” The coin’s owner had initially thought that the money was fake.